Bulb-a-licious

Bulbs are the sentinels of spring. We spend all winter in anxious anticipation of the rainbow of blooms that spring forth from those tiny little bulbs we plant in the fall. Bulbs should be planted now if you plan to enjoy them in spring. They need to go through the winter cold in the ground in order to bloom the following spring. In the world of bulbs, a little planning is required. Those that flower in spring need to be planted in the fall. Those that flower in late summer can be planted in early spring.hoa-ha-lan6-605781-1371470690_500x0

 

In the snowy month of March, you will see crocus peeking through the snow. Use them in borders of the garden, edging, in the grass, woodlands, and slopes or under trees. The colors range from white, yellow and striped to lavender and deep purple. These bulbs care little about spring snow and insist on flowering regardless of cold temperatures or severe weather. In addition to Crocus the Muscari, Anemone Blanda , and Galanthus bloom early.

crocus

The most popular bulb is the Tulip. We have many different types of tulip bulbs. The tulip has varieties that bloom in March, April and May, depending on the type you choose. Darwin hybrids are well known for their dependable performance, year after year. Tulips look best when planted in groupings of 5 or more bulbs. This will provide you with a patch of bright color that can be fit among existing perennials in the garden. Try planting in larger swaths of color where you might plant a border of annuals. Once the bulbs are done blooming, it will be time to plant your annuals. Your bedding plants will then disguise the bulb foliage while providing your summer garden color.

darwin tulips

Spring just wouldn’t be complete without the ever-dependable Daffodil. They just announce the word Spring with their everlasting beauty. Daffodils are perfect for rock gardens, borders and beds. They are offered in a wide range of colors and shapes and are perfect plant for naturalizing. Daffodil ‘Golden Bells’ is new for 99. Also known as the Yellow Hoop Petticoat, it has as many as 15 stems per bulb. A group of 5 or so will form a carpet of dainty, upward facing bright golden bells in your garden next spring.

www.public-domain-image.com (public domain image)
www.public-domain-image.com (public domain image)

 

 

 

What’s Bugging Your Plants?

It’s that time of year when the pesky pests come out to munch on our favorite garden plants. The warmer the weather, the faster those tiny eggs hatch. Before we know it, an army of aphids (or other pests) have decided to call our plants “home”. There are some things to know when determining how to manage pests in the yard. First, you’ll need to identify what you have in order to choose the best course of action. Some pests can be managed with a strong spray of water from hose, others may require an insecticide. Most insecticides target select pests. If you don’t know what you have, clip a small section of plant that is affected and put it in a sealed, clear plastic bag. Take the sample to your local garden center or county extension office for identification.

The most common pests are aphids, spider mites, white fly, Japanese beetles, earwigs, scale, and slugs.  There are a plethora of other insects, like tomato horn worm, psyllids, flea beetles and geranium bud worm, too.  Many will be managed by Mother Nature’s predatory insects.   Others, however, may require a bit of direct attention.

Aphids are probably the most common garden pest.  They are usually green, but may be black or red, or even woolly.   Aphids are pretty easy to identify.  You’ll be able to see adults with their distinctive horn-like spikes over their back legs.

Green Aphids

Aphids are pretty easy to manage.  If it is a light infestation, like the one pictured above, a hard stream of water will knock them off, pretty easily.  Ladybugs love to munch on aphids.  Release them in the cool evening hours and they’ll be making mince meat out of those aphids in no time.  Your ladybugs will stay in the area as long as they have a food supply.  Once your aphids are under control, they are likely to move on to another food source.   They can also be controlled using Neem oil or pyrethrin sprays.   Both are safe and effective, natural products.  Avoid applying any chemicals on hot sunny days.  Apply them in the morning or evening, to avoid damage to foliage.

Ladybug (the good bugs) eating an aphid
Ladybug Larvae
Spider Mites in web

Spider Mites

These tiny little creatures usually go without notice until we see their telltale webs.  For the most part, they hand out on the back of leaves, sucking the life out of our plants.  They are a little smaller than a pin head, making them difficult to see with the naked eye.  If you hold a piece of paper under an infested leaf and tap the leaf, some will fall onto the paper, making them easier to see.  Spider mites aren’t fond of moisture.  Direct water spray from a hose nozzle will usually knock them off.  That said, they are persistent little buggers.  Spraying them with a pyrethrin spray, or Neem oil would be prudent.   As with any chemical that is not a systemic, you’ll want to spray ever 5-7 days for 2-3 weeks, in order to catch each life cycle.

 

 

 

Feelin’ Hot, Hot, Hot!

It’s mid summer and the heat is on! Some of your plants may be showing signs of heat stress. Leaves may wilt. Vegetables like lettuce and spinach may bolt (flower prematurely) or in the case of plants you want to blossom, like peppers or watermelon, they may drop blossoms, reducing yield. Here are a few tips to help your garden withstand the hottest part of the summer:

1. Watch- Plants will often tell you when they are needing water. Lawns will turn a bluish green and show footprints that don’t rebound. Bean leaves will turn a darker green and begin to wilt. Most plants will perform better if you don’t allow them to wilt before watering, so check your garden every day and observe their needs.

2. Water- It’s true that you need to water more often during hot weather, but first check the soil. The surface may look dry even though there is plenty of moisture in the root zone. Over-watering can be just as harmful as under-watering, so don’t over do it. Slow, deep watering will insure that water soaks down to the roots. Soaker hoses and drip irrigation systems work well. If using a hose that has been laying in the sun, be sure to let it run for a minute or two, until cool water comes out.

3. Mulch- A couple of inches of organic mulch like compost, grass clippings, or bark mulch will help reduce moisture loss and cool the soil temperature. A side benefit is that it prevents most weeds from germinating, too.

4. Shade- Cover cool weather veggies like lettuce and spinach with shade cloth. It won’t totally prevent bolting, but it could delay it a bit. Also, raise your lawn mower blade up so that you have 3 inches of grass left standing after you mow. This will provide shade for the roots of your lawn keeping them cool and much happier (which means a greener lawn).

5. Don’t spray chemicals during heat- Avoid spraying garden chemicals when temperatures are above 85 degrees. Weed killers can volatilize (evaporate and become air borne) and drift onto desirable plants. Insecticides can burn leaves of plants when temps are above 85. Spray early in the morning when temps are cooler and the air is still, or wait

Itching to Plant

Peas in the garden

The calendar says spring, but the weather isn’t quite ideal for most garden veggies and annuals. While planting seeds indoors for later transplant is fun, it’s not exactly scratching our itch to plant in the garden. So what can we plant? Asparagus, Chives, Fennel, Garlic, Onions, Peas, Potatoes, Radishes, Strawberries are the earliest veggies to plant. We’ll focus on 3 of the most popular early vegetables – peas, asparagus and strawberries.

Peas in inoculent

Peas are among the easiest vegetables to grow. It’s a great choice for beginning gardeners of all ages. They can usually be planted around the first week of April. Here are a few tips. Dampen the seeds and cover them with inoculant for legumes before planting, then plant. Peas and other legumes benefit from inoculation, which adds bacteria to the host plant seed prior to planting. The bacterium attaches to the root system and creates a symbiotic relationship with legumes, making it easy for your peas to obtain and use nitrogen.

Asparagus crown

Asparagus takes a little effort and time, but the reward is oh, so tasty. ‘Martha Washington’ is one of the most popular varieties. However it produces both male and female plants. Female plants produce attractive red berries in the fall, but fewer edible spears. ‘Jersey Giant’ is a contemporary hybrid of all-male plants, which is more productive and has greater disease resistance. ‘Purple Passion’ produces purple spears which dress up the dinner plate and often entice children to eat their veggies.

It’s best to wait a year after planting asparagus, before making a harvest. This allows the plants to develop a healthy root system. In the second season, harvest spears larger than a pencil. The third season, and thereafter, harvest as you choose. Allowing the plants three seasons to fully establish themselves insures a long lived patch for years to come.

Strawberries are another popular perennial edible. It’s best to provide a separate planting area for them, outside your normal vegetable beds, because plants spread rapidly. There are 3 types of strawberries: June bearing, Everbearing and Day Neutral. We skip the June bearing plants because we want strawberries more than just one month each year. Everbearing strawberries provide two crops of strawberries, making them ideal for canning and freezing. Fort Laramie, Quinalt and Ozark Beauty are some of our favorites. Day Neutral strawberries produce fruit from spring to fall, making them a great choice for enjoying fresh from the garden throughout the summer. Our favorite is Eversweet, with its large, deliciously sweet flavor. It’s also the best choice for container growing since it doesn’t require pinching of runners or flowers to establish.

 

While we offer strawberry transplants in packs, you may find it easier to start from dormant bare root stock. When planted in early spring, once night temperatures are consistently above 25°F, they establish quickly. Be sure to stay on top of weeding around your strawberries. An ounce of prevention goes a long way when it comes to the strawberry patch. Mulch will help keeps weeds in check, making it a little easier on your knees. When it comes to June bearing and Everbearing varieties, it’s a good idea to remove the flowers and runners for the first season in favor of growing a healthy root system. We know it’s a lot to ask, but a little self-control now will provide you with a bigger harvest the second season. Container grown strawberries won’t over-winter here, so there’s no need to pinch off flowers or runners.


To get started, amend the planting area with compost. Soak your strawberry roots for about half an hour, to rehydrate them, before planting. Plant them so that the soil level is level with the crown of the plant. Be ready to cover with netting to keep birds and small animals from snatching your strawberries as they grow. Drip irrigation is the best way to water strawberries. If you water overhead, do it in the morning. This will allow the fruit and foliage to dry before nightfall, reducing the risk of disease affecting your plants.

Everything You Ever Wanted to Know About Poinsettias

 

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Peterstar Marble Poinsettia with tightly budded flowers framed by the colorful bracts of foliage.

Millions of poinsettias are purchased each year during the Christmas season by people who enjoy the color and warmth they provide to their home.  Healthy plants will last throughout the holiday season.  How do you choose the perfect poinsettia?  Poinsettia plants should be stocky with dark green foliage, well-formed richly colored bracts (modified leaves) and very few open flowers (golden-yellow clusters located at the center of the bracts.) Proper selection will help to insure a long lasting plant that you will enjoy throughout the holiday season.

 

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Sturdy branches filled with deep green leaves indicate a healthy plant.

 

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Healthy poinsettias have lush leaves and bright colors.

 

There are few tricks to get your poinsettia home safely.  If temperatures are below 50° F, the plant must be sleeved to protect the plant as it leaves the warmth of the garden center.  Avoid exposing poinsettias to cold temperatures.   A chilled plant will begin to drop leaves very quickly.   Once inside,   remove the protective wrapping.  It is often easier to carefully slit the side of the sleeve to remove it.  Because poinsettia bracts are a little sticky and can adhere to plant sleeves, pulling them down will result in branches breaking.   Don’t leave them wrapped for more than the time it takes to get your plant home.   Leaving them covered can result in blackening, curling and overall plant distress.  If you plan to give the plant as a gift at a later time, ask for a second plant sleeve to use when you transport it to its final destination.

Contrary to popular belief, the Poinsettia is not likely to harm your pets or your children.  Research at Ohio State University, working with The Society of American Florists, has proven that no toxicity was evident at experimental levels that would well exceed the amounts likely to be ingested in the home environment.   Were a person to consume a great many leaves, the result would likely be mild stomach upset.  The white sap can cause skin irritation which can be remedied by washing with soap and water.

How to care for your Poinsettia

• TEMPERATURE: A cool room (65-70F during the day and 60-65F at night) is ideal. Avoid hot or cold drafts or excess heat from appliances, fireplaces, radiators or ventilating ducts.

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Glace, the brightest of the white poinsettias

• LIGHT: Very bright, indirect light is essential for proper growth and color retention.

• WATER: Plants should be checked daily and watered thoroughly whenever the soil feels dry to touch or the pot becomes light. If the plant is wrapped in foil, slit the bottom to avoid water accumulating at the bottom of the pot.  If it is in a basket, be sure to discard any drainage that collects.  Poinsettias hate to have their pots standing in water and they aren’t very forgiving about it.

• FERTILIZER: Plants should be fertilized with a well-balanced all purpose fertilizer like Peter’s 20-20-20 until the poinsettia is in full color. Once in full color, reduce fertilizing to ½ strength once every 3-4 times that you water.

 

Reflowering Your Poinsettia

If you have a gardener’s green thumb, you may want to try your hand at reflowering your poinsettia next year. If you follow these directions very carefully, it is possible to have your poinsettia in flower by Christmas.  The following describes the cycle of poinsettia color.

• December: Full bloom. Water as needed.

• Late March to Early April: Color fades. Keep near a sunny window. Cut stems back to about 8”. Water as needed and fertilize with a well-balanced, all purpose fertilizer like Peter’s All-Purpose Plant Food. Around May you should see new growth.

• June 1st:  Re-pot if necessary in a well-drained potting mix.  You can put your plant outside if you would like as long as the night temperatures are consistently above 55 F and it is protected from the hot sun.

• July-August:  Pruning may be required to keep your plant compact and bushy.  Do not prune after September 1st.

• Starting October 1st:  Provide complete and continuous darkness for 12-14 hours night combined with 6-8 hours of bright light a day. During the night, stray light of any kind, streetlights or household lamps, may delay or halt the re-flowering process.

• Remember: The key to success is to follow the strict light-dark requirements very carefully.

• Once your poinsettia is in full color, stop fertilizing until it loses its color and the cycle starts again in March.

Poinsettia Facts

The assigned botanical name is Euphorbia pulcherrima, meaning “the most beautiful Euphorbia”. The United States’ first ambassador to Mexico, Joel Robert Poinsett, sent several plants back to his home in Greenville, South Carolina in 1825. The common name, poinsettia, comes from his last name.

 

Water Wise Lawn Watering

About 3%  of residential water use goes to outdoor watering, including lawns. By effectively using water and reducing wasteful practices such as improper watering you will create deep, vigorous root systems and help the lawn be more resistant to drought conditions. The following techniques are beneficial for healthy turf.

Aeration – Creating holes or slits so that air and water can penetrate beneath the surface will improve drainage and stimulate new roots that provide the lawn more resistance to drought for the summer ahead. Aeration can be done in the spring or fall, but it is best done when soil conditions are moist. This ensures that the aerator will pull deeper plugs. The plugs should be 3 to 4 inches deep for best results.

Mowing – It is best to mow often, but not too close. Cutting the lawn to the recommended height is healthier during drought conditions. Bluegrass, fescue and ryegrass should be mowed at a height of 3 inches. Longer grass has more leaf surface to absorb greater amounts of sunlight, encouraging thicker turf with a deeper root system.

Watering – Many questions arise concerning watering. What time of day is best?  How often should you water? How much water is needed? Here are some guidelines for watering your lawn. It is best to water when the temperature is cooler, so that less water is lost to evaporation. Evening and morning hours are the best time. Allowing the lawn to dry down between watering cycles allows air to enter the soil and stimulates deeper root development. Watering too frequently or flooding the turf is not healthy for the lawn and is a waste of water. The soil should be soaked to a depth of 4 inches at each watering cycle. The best way to achieve this is to put down about a ½ inch of water, move the sprinkler to another area and then move it back and apply another ½ inch of water. This technique gives the water a chance to soak in without wasting water to run off. It is simple to measure the amount of water by placing shallow containers or a rain gauge in the spray area

Lawn grasses are rarely killed by droughts. Proper watering practices will help conserve water and save money, while maintaining an attractive and healthy lawn.

Hail Recovery

Severe hail damage is devastating and discouraging. First of all – take a deep breath and don’t despair. Many times plants will recover from some hail damage, other times there will be no recovery and replanting will be necessary. Here are steps to consider:
• Do a general clean-up of the area and remove the damaged parts of plants – trim off any hanging stems and remove the debris in the area.
• If all that remains are stems, trim them back by half and they will possibly releaf.
• Lightly cultivate the soil around the damaged plants. The force of hail and heavy rain compacts the soil and leaves a hard crusty layer at the surface – gently cultivate to break up the crusty layer.
• Avoid the urge to immediately fertilize the damaged plants. Give them a chance to develop new growth. After a week to 2 weeks fertilize with fish emulsion or seaweed extract. After they have resumed active growth, regular fertilization can resume.

In many instances, hail damage is a Mother Nature “pruning” of the plant. Remember that pruning stimulates growth, and many plants can recover. There will be those that are beyond repair and will have to be replaced.

There are many ways to protect plants from hail to come.  Invert cardboard boxes, buckets or pots, over your plants.  Hail netting is a great way to protect plants.  Use stakes to hold it above the foliage of your plants.  It’s durable and lasts for years.  Because it allows water and sunlight to pass through the netting, it can be left over plant for a time, safely.

The Grass Can Be Just as Green on Your Side of the Fence

Having a healthy, lush lawn isn’t as difficult as you might think. Follow these easy steps and your lawn will be the envy of the neighborhood.

Core Aeration – Core aeration is recommended in the spring and again in the fall. It is best to have some moisture in the soil at the time of aeration.  Core aeration is simple, cost-effective and very beneficial to your lawn. It helps to reduce soil compaction, promote root growth and reduce a buildup of thatch. Lawn aeration will greatly improve a lawn if scheduled on a yearly basis.  Aeration allows water and fertilizer to get down to the root zone. It will help to reduce the thatch layer which blocks water, oxygen and fertilizer from penetrating to the root of the plant.

Fertilize – 4 times a year

Early Spring – late March to mid-April. This is the ideal time to include a pre-emergent application on your lawn.  Pre-emergents create a gaseous barrier that prevents annual weed seeds from germinating.  If you plan to overseed or reseed areas of your lawn, avoid using a fertilizer that contains a pre-emergent.  Otherwise, your lawn seed will not germinate.   If you plan to aerate the lawn, do so before applying pre-emergents.  Aeration after application will reduce the effectiveness of the pre-emergent, significantly.

Late Spring – late May to mid-June.  Choosing a fertilizer that contains a broadleaf weed herbicide can be helpful, at this time.  It will take care of those pesky dandelions and thistles.

Mid-Summer – mid-July to mid-August.  Like the previous application, a fertilizer with a broadleaf weed herbicide will continue to protect your lawn from dandelions.

Fall – late September to mid-October.  A winterizer is ideal at this time.  Lawn Winterizers are designed to release nutrients slowly, prepare your lawn for the harsh weather to come and build sturdy, healthy turf.  This is the most important fertilizer application to protect your lawn and shouldn’t be missed.

Watering

Under normal circumstances , 1 inch of water per week is sufficient to maintain your lawn.  Apply 1/2 ” of water at each watering.  During consistent extreme heat, 1 ½ inches of water per week is ideal.   Apply 3/4″ of water, twice weekly during these times.

Check your watering system by running a zone for your allotted time and measure your output by putting out some shallow containers.  Adjust your time to allow for adequate water output.

Early morning watering is preferred, before 10 a.m. if possible.  Watering in the mid-day heat means much of the moisture will be lost to evaporation.  Evening watering can contribute to the risk of fungal disease in the lawn and garden.

Mowing

Adjust your mower height 2 to 3 inches  and keep blades sharp.  A well maintained mower can make all the difference.  Dull blades shred the grass tips, creating stress.  Stressed lawns are easy targets for disease and insects.

The most common fungal disease in lawn is Ascochyta Leaf Blight. It is caused by drought stress or inefficiencies in irrigation systems.  Ascochyta is a fungus that lives on the leaf blade.  It enters the leaf blade through the cut end (when you mow).  It causes the blade to turn a straw color and wither to a point.  It seems to coincide with periods of cool weather followed by hot, dry conditions. 

Fungicides are ineffective on Ascochyta – focus on irrigation system.  Look for broken or tilted heads, adjust the spray/arc of your sprinkler stream to get more uniform coverage and water appropriately.

If you are trying to control and suppress any kind of fungal disease in your lawn it is recommended that you use an organically based fertilizer that is lower in slow release nitrogen.

 

The Scourge of the Landscape – Japanese Beetle

There are some insects no one ever wants to see in their yard. Japanese beetle is probably at the top of the list. Japanese Beetles devour established landscape plants in a day. There are few things more devastating to your landscape.

There is a way to protect your landscape for the next 10 years that is organic and easy to use. It’s called Milky Spore. It’s a spore that affects Japanese beetle grubs, and nothing else. You read that right…….nothing else. That means it can be used in the lawn, in the vegetable garden, and throughout your landscape. Just one teaspoon of powder, every 4 square feet apart is all it takes for 10 years of control.  

It is uncommon for us to suggest applying something before you’ve identified an insect problem, but this is one of those times. Applying Milky Spore is like giving your landscape a vaccine that will protect it from Japanese beetle damage for a decade to come.
Japanese beetle grubs can sometimes be spotted in the lawn, the fall before you might see the adults on your plants.

When Can I Plant?

Here comes the sun! With it and the warm day temperatures of spring comes one of the most frequent questions we hear. “Can I plant this now?” The answer depends on the plant and particularly, on the nighttime temperatures. Our early spring days are often beautiful and daytime temperatures may reach well into the 70’s. It’s the night temperatures that really tell us when it’s safe to plant. Our last frost date is generally considered to occur around May 20th. While some years the date arrives earlier, there are occasional years when it occurs as late as June 1. We’re eager gardeners and antsy to get plants in the ground, but if we aren’t mindful of the night temperatures, we can do more harm than good.Image result for gardening in snow

Before I get carried away talking about plants, I should mention the value of hardening off your plants before you plant. What is hardening off? It’s a process that acclimates plants prior to transplanting in order to reduce the risk of transplant shock. The process takes a few days, but it’s worth the investment of time, particularly in early spring or late summer heat. Day one, place the plants in a shaded area outside and move them indoors or into a garage that night. Day two, place the plants in partial sun for the day and move into the garage or indoors at night. Day three, place the plant in a sunny spot for the day and move to a protected outdoor location, like against the house or under a porch, for the night. Day four, move into the sun for the day and leave them in the exposed location for the night. Day five, plant. In late summer, when the temperatures are well over 80°F, I often use the same process, but shortened to 3 days. This helps prevent sun and wind burn to the young plants. Hardening off plants increases successful transplanting.Using a Cloche to protect plants
Hardening Off Plants

Now back to what we can plant and when we can plant it.
Hands down, the most common plants asked about are tomatoes and peppers. Tomatoes and peppers, two of the longest season garden vegetables, prefer night temperatures to be above 50°F for about a week before they are planted. The ground needs to be consistently warm for them to do well. If we plant too early, and the night temperatures are still cold, plants set less fruit and are often more susceptible to problems like blossom end rot later in the season.

Blossom End Rot

There are helpful tools like Season Starters that can be used to warm the ground earlier than traditional planting would allow. They should be set up for 7-10 days to warm the soil, before they are planted with your seedlings. Once planted, the plant protectors act as insulators against cold temperatures, much like a mini greenhouse. Generally, Season Starters can give you a jump start by several weeks. Set them up about April 15 and you can plant inside them a week later.

Season Starter

We hope this Frost Hardiness list will help gardeners know when it is safe to set out their plants. The actual dates vary, of course, with each area, but the principle is the same. Perennials that are not hardy in Colorado are listed as annuals. The hardiness of perennials is based on coming out of a protected climate.

To obtain maximum frost hardiness, HARDEN PLANTS OFF gradually by exposing them to sun, wind, and cold, but above freezing temperatures for a few days.

These dates are approximate for the Denver area. Safe dates vary from year to year, suburb to suburb, and even from one location in the garden to another. Covering plants on unusually cold nights will help protect them. On extremely cold nights it may be necessary to dig plants up and bring them inside.

Very Hardy Plants–Plant Out up to 7 weeks before last frost.
(April 1 in Denver, April 10 in Golden & Parker)
Annuals:
Alyssum, Anchusa, Centaurea, Dracaena, Dusty Miller, Larkspur, Nigella, Pansy, Snapdragon, Sweet Pea
Perennial Starts
Achillea, Aegopodium, Ajuga, Aurinia, Arabis, Armeria, Aubretia, Basket of Gold, Bishop’s Weed, Carnation, Creeping Phlox, Gayfeather, Hardy Hibiscus, Lavender Cotton, Liatris, Lobelia, Primrose, Primula, Rock Cress, Purple Rock Cress, Red Hot Poker, Santolina, Sedum, Thyme, Torch Lily, Tritoma, Viola, Yarrow
Vegetable Plants
Asparagus, Chives, Fennel, Garlic, Onions, Peas, Potato, Radish, Strawberry

Asparagus

Hardy Plants–Plant up to 5 weeks before last frost.
(April 20 in Denver, April 30 in Golden & Parker)
Annuals
African Daisy, Arctotis, Baby Blue Eyes, Calendula, Carnation, Dianthus, Diascia, Flowering Kale, Lobelia, Osteospermum, Phlox, Twinspur, Vinca Vine
Perennial Starts
Alstromeria, Anemone,Baby’ Breath, Bachelor Buttons, Bellis, Campanula, Candytuft, Centaurea, Cerastium, Columbine, Coral Bells, Coreopsis, Daylily, Dianthus, Digitalis, Doronicum, English Daisy, Erysimum, Festuca, Feverfew, Flax, Forget-Me-Not, Foxglove, Galium, Garden Mums, Gloriosa Daisy, Gypsophila, Helianthemum, Hemerocallis, Heuchera, Hollyhocks, Hosta, Iberis, Lavender, Lenten Rose, Lupine, Lunaria, Lysimachia, Maltese Cross, Matricaria, Mexican Feather Grass, Missouri Primrose, Money Plant, Myosotis, Oenothera, Painted Daisy, Penstemon, Tall Phlox, Pincushion Flower, Poppy, Pyrethrum, Roses, Rudbeckia, Scabiosa, Shasta Daisy, Snow-in Summer, Statice, Sweet William, Sweet Woodruff, Veronica, Violet
cauliflower
Vegetable Plants
Broccoli, Brussels Sprouts, Cabbage, Cauliflower, Kohlrabi, Lettuce, Pak Choi, Perennial Herbs, Radicchio, Rhubarb, Spinach

Half-Hardy Plants–Plant out up to 3 weeks before last
frost date.
(May 1 in Denver, May 10 in Golden & Parker)
Annuals
Anagallis, Angelonia, Angel’s Trumpets, Bacopa, Bells of Ireland, Blue Lace Flower, Calibrachoa, California Poppy, Campanula, Clover, Coreopsis, Cosmos, Creeping Zinnia, Datura, Dichondra, Didiscus, Fountain Grass, Gaillardia, Gazania, Gerbera, Gloriosa Daisy, Gomphrena, Lotus Vine, Ornamental Grasses, Petunia, Pennisetum, Phlox, Purple Bell Vine, Regal Geranium, Ruby Grass, Rudbeckia, Sanvitalia, Scarlet Pimpernel, Stocks, Strawflowers, Steirodiscus, Sutera, Sweet Peas, Sweet Sultan, Transvaal Daisy, Trifolium, Verbena, Xerianthemum


Perennial Starts
Artemesia, Hardy Asters, Astilbe, Balloon Flower, Bee Balm, Bleeding Heart, Delphinium, Echinacea, Euphorbia, Felicia Daisy, Geum, Gladiolus, Hibiscus, Hypericum, Monarda, Peony, Platycodon, Purple Coneflower, Roses, Salvia, Sagina, Saxifraga, Verbena
Vegetable Plants
Artichoke, Celery, Leek

Tender Plants–Plant outside after almost all danger of
frost has passed.
(May 20 in Denver, May 30 in Golden & Parker)
Annuals
Abutilon, Achimenes, African Daisy, Ageratum, Argyranthemum, Alternanthera, Alternaria,amaranthus, Asparagus Fern, Asters, Axilflower, Balsam, Banana, Begonia, Bidens, Black Eyed Susan, Bloodleaf, Blue Throatwort, Bougainvillea, Bower Vine, Brachycome, Browallia, Brunfelsia, Caladium, Calla Lily, Calliopsis, Canna, Cardinal Flower, Catharanthus, Celosia, Chrysanthemum, Chrysocephalum, Cigar Plant, Cleome, Coleus, Copperleaf, Crassula, Crossandra, Cuphea, Dahlberg Daisy, Dahlia, Dallas Fern, Dipladenia, Elephant Ears, Evolvulus, Fanflower, Fiber Optic Grass, Flowering Maple, Flowering Tobacco, Fountain Grass, Four O’ Clock, Fuchsia, Geranium, Gloriosa Lily, Firebush, Guara, Hamelia, Heliotrope, Hibiscus, Impatiens, Iresene, Jasmine, Lantana, Livingstone Daisy, Lisianthus, Lithospermum, Marguerite Daisy, Marigold, Mecardonia, Melampodium, Millet, Mimulus, Monkey Flower, Moon Vine, Morning Glory, Napa Valley Fern, Nasturtium, Nemesia, Nicotiana, Nierembergia, Nolana, Oleander, Oxalis, Painted Tongue, Pampas Grass, Pentas, Perilla, Periwinkle, Plectranthus, Polka Dot Plant, Polygonum, Portulaca, Salpiglossis, Salvia, Sanvitalia, Scarlet Runner Bean, Scaevola, Scutellaria, Schizanthus, Skullcap, Statice, Stoneseed, Streptocarpella, Sunflower, Swan River Daisy, Sweet Potato Vine, Thunbergia, Tithonia, Torenia, Trachelium, Trailing Portulaca, Tropical Hibiscus, Tropical Water Plants, Zinnia

Vegetable Plants
Annual Herbs, Cantaloupe, Corn, Cucumber, Eggplant, Okra, Peanut, Bell & Chile Peppers, Pumpkin, Squash, Sweet Potato, Tomato, Watermelon